Chana is a pulse crop which is cultivated all over India. Seventy-five per cent of the whole world’s gram is grown in India. Chana is very beneficial for the human body. Consuming soaked gram in the morning keeps the body energetic throughout the day. Apart from this, many types of things are made from the gram. To consume gram in raw form, its beans are roasted and eaten. Its raw leaves can also be eaten by making vegetables, chutneys and roti. Moreover, so many implements are used in efficient farming such as power tiller, harvester and others. Also, Power tiller price is economical for farmers.
Soil, Climate & Temperature
Gram cultivation can be done in any fertile and well-drained soil, and loamy soil is considered suitable for getting a good gram yield. The P.H. of the land in its cultivation. The value should be between 6 and 7.5. The gram plant has a cold climate. To supply water for its cultivation, plants are planted in the rainy season, and excessive rainfall also harms the plants. Its plants grow well in cold climates, but the frost that falls in the winter season breaks the plants. Land preparation is an important step for cultivation. Similarly, for better and effective land preparation farmers use tractor cultivator which helps in effective farming.
Many types of diseases are seen on its plants in the hot summer. Gram cultivation can be done quickly in average temperatures. Its plants germinate well in 20-degree temperatures. The gram plant can tolerate only a maximum temperature of 30 degrees and a minimum of 10 degrees. Less than this temperature affects the yield.
Field Preparation & Fertiliser
Before planting gram seeds, the field is prepared well. For this, the area is first thoroughly ploughed. Due to this, the field’s soil gets good sunlight, and the harmful elements in the soil are destroyed. After applying the waste in the field, the manure is mixed well in the soil by ploughing. Then, the area is pressed using water.
After ploughing, the field is levelled by applying a pat, so the domain does not get waterlogged. There are knots in the roots of a gram, which supplies nitrogen from the soil itself. Because of this, its plants do not require much chemical fertiliser, and organic fertiliser is considered the most suitable. Only one sack of DAP is used as chemical fertiliser. The amount must be given at the time of the field’s last ploughing and spraying of 25 kg of gypsum in one acre of lot.
Gram seeds are planted in the form of sources. Before planting these seeds, they are treated with an appropriate amount of cow urine, thiram, carbendazim or mancozeb. This reduces the risk of disease in the root, and the germination of the seeds is also good.
Its seeds are sown with the Rabi crop. The time of sowing of seeds is different in irrigated and unirrigated places. October to December is the most suitable for sowing seeds in irrigated areas, and in unirrigated places, seeds are sowed between September and October. Planting seeds is done by the machine, for which rows are prepared in the field, and a distance of one to one and a half feet is kept between each row.
70 to 75 per cent sowing of a gram is done in unirrigated areas. Because of this, its plants do not require much water. Whereas in irrigated places, the plants have to be watered. Its plants need a maximum of three to four irrigations. Its first irrigation is done 30 to 35 days after sowing the seeds, and after that, irrigation has to be done at an interval of 25 to 30 days.
The roots of gram plants are in the soil, and they take nutrients from the ground itself. In such a situation, if weeds come out in the field, the plants cannot absorb the nutrients in sufficient quantities. Therefore, both natural and chemical methods are used to control weeds. Two to three hoeings is required in the field to control weeds by nature’s process, and each hoeing is done in 25 days. On the other hand, to control weeds in a chemical method, the appropriate amount of Pendimethalin has to be sprayed immediately after planting the seeds.
Improved gram varieties are ready for harvesting after 100 to 120 days of sowing. Harvest them when the leaves on its plants appear light yellow, and the grains become hard. Its plants are harvested from near the ground. After harvesting, leave the plants to dry in the same field for some time. After the plant dries, its grains are removed with the help of a thresher.
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