The flexible material or the upper layer of the mantle stone consisting mainly of tiny particles and humus that can support plants’ development known as “soil”. Soil primarily consists of mineral/rock particles, portions of decayed organic matter, soil water, soil air and living organisms. The significant factors that affect soil formation are parent vegetation, material, climate, relief, life forms and time.
Many farming implements are available to keep the soil quality reasonable. These implements include super seeder and others. Farmers have to choose a farming machine according to crop and soil.
Soil formed under typical natural conditions, and each of the features of the natural environment contributes to this complex method of soil formation known as pedogenesis.
The soil shape is a vertical cross-section of layers parallel to the cover. Each layer of soil has a various texture known as the horizon.
Topsoil is the topmost layer where the organic materials have been incorporated with the mineral matter, nutrients and water – elements necessary for the growth of plants.
Subsoil this zone has a more awesome content of minerals, and humus is present in smaller amounts. It represents a transition between Horizon A and Horizon C and contains matter beneath and overhead.
Horizon C (weathered and decomposed rock) – This zone composed of the loose parent/rock material.
Different Kinds of Soil
In the below, we mentioned different types of soil.
Alluvial soils are general in the northern grasslands and river valleys. It covers about 40% of the total ground area of the nation. These soils mainly emanated from the debris brought down from the Himalayas. The Peninsular province found in deltas of the east coast and the river valleys. The colour of the alluvial soil varies from light grey to ash grey. In addition, the alluvial soil differences in nature from sandy loam to clay. They are rich in potash but poor in phosphorus. To maintain the quality of this kind of soli, farmers use an efficient implement such as tractor rotavator and others.
Red & Yellow Soil
Red & Yellow soil covers about 18.5 % of the country’s total land area. It is found in areas of low rainfall. This soil is also present in parts of Odisha and Chattisgarh and the southern regions of the Middle Ganga Plain. The earth seems yellow when it is in hydrated form. The fine-grained red and yellow soil is usually productive, while the coarse-grained soil is less fertile. This type of soil is generally poor in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus. Wheat, cotton, oilseeds, tobacco, pulses are mainly cultivated in the red and yellow earth.
Desert grounds are sandy to gravelly in texture and have low moisture content and water-retaining capacity. These soils are saline in nature, and in certain regions, the salt content is so high that common salt is obtained by evaporating water. These soils have a moderate phosphate range but are lacking in nitrogen. As a result, the colour varies from red to brown. Due to increased calcium content in the lower horizons of the ground, there are ‘kankar’ layers. These kankar layers restrict water penetration, and as such, when water is made available through irrigation, the soil moisture is readily known for sustainable plant growth. Desert soils are profoundly found in western Rajasthan and little humus and organic matter.
Black or Regur Soil
It covers about 15% of the total land area of the country. It covers most of the Deccan Plateau and the north-western part of the Deccan Plateau, and the black soil is intense. The colour of these soils varies from deep black to grey. They swell significantly and become sticky when wet in the rainy season. In the dry season, the moisture evaporates and the soil shrinks and develops wide cracks. However, these soils are deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. Therefore, cotton, pulses, millets, castor, tobacco, sugarcane, citrus fruits etc., mainly cultivated in black soil.
It accounts for about 3.7% of the total area of the country. These are typical soils of the monsoon climate, characterised by seasonal rainfall. Soil rich in iron oxide and aluminium left, leading to the formation of laterite soil. Laterite soil is deficient in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate and calcium. However, iron oxide and potash are in abundance. Although low in infertility, they respond well to manures and fertilisers. Laterite soils found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and hilly regions of Assam and Odisha. Red laterite soil in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh well suited for tree crop cultivation like cashew nuts. However, laterite soil hardens rapidly and irreversibly on exposure to the air, a property that leads to its use as building bricks in southern India.
The Mountain soil seen in the forest regions where rainfall is sufficient.
The soil texture relies on the mountain environment where they found. These soils coarse-grained in the upper pitches and loamy and silty on valley sides. In the snow bound areas of the Himalayas, these soils undergo denudation and are acidic with a low humus range.
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